Saturday, 11 November 2017

BUILDING THE STAIRCASE


After the erection of the foundation, consecutive stage within the construction of the House can be either of the following 2 choices. The superstructure (the walls) is erected just in case of a load bearing structure or the columns are often raised in the column-beam structure. at the same time, the staircase can be designed. the stairs is beneficial because it will function the pathway to the higher floors for carrying building materials. A staircase could be a utility construction, designed to bridge a vertical distance, for instance between 2 floors.

PLANNING A STAIRCASE: 

Earlier, the staircase was simply a utility feature during a house, however currently it's gaining importance as a central, center of attention in interiors. you'll be able to decide on curved, cantilevered, spiral or suspended, in steel, glass, timber, copper or aluminum – infinite possibilities are displayed by clever design and engineering.

SHAPE OF THE STAIRCASE:

Some of the various shapes of staircases square measure Straight, Stairs with landings, Curved, Arched, Spiral, Circular. once choosing the shape of the staircase, the following aspects ought to be taken into account: area accessible, Intensity of usage, type (Shape) most well-liked, Convenience and safety.

DESIGNING A STAIRCASE:

Since the staircase is used all the time to access alternative floors, the following points should be taken into consideration within the style of the way, to confirm a cushty climb.
Split staircases: it's perpetually desirable to possess a ‘Split staircase’ additionally referred to as a ‘staircase with a landing’ because it forces the climber to rest, pause for many seconds, therefore creating the climb more comfortable. A split stairs additionally uses up tokenish floor house. There square measure many various sorts of staircases-with-landings such as the Straight staircase with landing, L-shaped, double L-shaped and U-shaped staircases.You can examine it in my post Stairs with landings.

Staircase breadth: The width of every flight of the staircase ought to be 3' or 3'6". If area restricts, then you'll be able to compromise with a 2'6" wide flight.


Tread-To-Riser ratio: sometimes stairs have 10" or 11" treads (the horizontal tread on which you place your feet) and 6" or 7" risers (the vertical height between treads). it's necessary to create positive the entire of the tread and riser ought to add up to seventeen inches. this implies that because the tread gets shorter, the riser ought to get steeper for the support to feel comfortable as you climb. There are limits, of course. A riser of over 8¼ inches goes to be too steep for several individuals.

Consistent treads and risers: 

If you stumble or trip on a staircase, it's in all probability because of associate odd tread or riser that's not an equivalent size because the others. Our bodies get into a rhythm when climbing or downward, and even 0.5 an inch of difference can throw us off. therefore whereas coming up with a staircase, keep in mind the additional thickness of the flooring (that are additional later), whereas calculating the riser and tread dimensions.

Tread overhang: 

A tread overhang will keep heels from scuffing risers on the approach down and assist you find your footing on the way up.

Space between treads:
generally, the riser is omitted entirely – it’s simply empty space instead of a board. In such a stair, the stringer – supporting structure of the stair is visible. For safety, a stair that doesn’t have a riser should have a thicker tread and lesser space between treads.

Ceiling Height: 

On the way up, individuals will bump their heads if the ceiling is just too low. On the approach down, it’s exhausting to judge ceiling height, therefore people can duck if it looks too close. to prevent this, as much ceiling height as possible should be given. the space from the highest tread below a ceiling ought to be a minimum of eighty inches, or 6 feet 8 inches.


Lighting:

whereas planning the staircase, it's worthwhile to think of the lighting points, despite the fact that the lighting style for the home is given later, at the time of casting the roof slab. The lighting ought to be planned in such the simplest way that the stair flights are visible. If you would like lights on the length of the stairs then it should be embedded together with the stairs throughout its construction.

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Tuesday, 7 November 2017


Constructing a new house need lots of planning. Some of the stages of home construction includes are:

Floor Plans and home design


       We utilize an itemized investigation of the learning work around visual portrayals to attract regard for the multidimensional idea of `objects'. Items are differently depicted in the written works as generally steady or in transition; as unique or concrete; and as utilized inside or crosswise over practices. We illuminate these measurements, drawing on and broadening the writing on limit protests, and associating it with take a shot at epistemic and specialized items. Specifically, we feature the epistemic part of items, utilizing our perceptions of learning take a shot at a building configuration venture to demonstrate how, in this setting, visual portrayals are described by a `lack' or deficiency that accelerates unfurling. The calculated plan of a building includes an extensive variety of specialized, social and stylish types of information that should be created and adjusted. We investigate how visual portrayals are utilized, and how these are significant to various partners, evoking their particular commitments. As the undertaking advances and the illustrations change, new issues and requirements for learning work emerge. These articles have a `unfolding cosmology' and are always in transition, as opposed to full fledged. We talk about the suggestions for more extensive understandings of items in associations and for how information function is accomplished by and by.


Structural Design & Drawings


A basic illustration, a sort of Engineering drawing, is an arrangement or set of plans for how a building or other structure will be constructed. Basic illustrations are by and large arranged by enrolled proficient auxiliary specialists, and educated by structural illustrations. They are basically worried about the heap conveying individuals from a structure. They layout the size and sorts of materials to be utilized, and in addition the general requests for associations. They don't address compositional points of interest like surface completions, segment dividers, or mechanical frameworks. The basic illustrations convey the plan of the building's structure to the building expert to audit. They are likewise progressed toward becoming piece of the agreement reports which direct contractual workers in itemizing, creating, and introducing parts of the structure

Budgeting, Estimation & Costing, Planning Construction


All undertakings, both development and natural reclamation, require cost appraisals to plan and spending plan the venture productively. Various appraisals are regularly arranged successively for a given undertaking as the venture develops, and the level of data and detail accessible to the estimator increments

Excavation for Foundations


An establishment (or, all the more usually, base) is the component of a compositional structure which interfaces it to the ground, and exchanges loads from the structure to the ground. Establishments are by and large considered either shallow or deep.[1] Foundation building is the utilization of soil mechanics and shake mechanics (Geotechnical designing) in the plan of establishment components of structures.

Footings & Columns


Solid Covering is the cover accommodated the fortification in Reinforced Cement Concrete. Cover is characterized as the Distance between the external surface of the solid to the embedded support. 

Why we give Concrete Cover? 

Covering is given to capture the assault of erosion. Support is inclined to consumption and fire for environmental conditions. On the off chance that the correct cover isn't actualized then there is more shot of erosion and breaks in solidified RCC. 

Covering is accommodated each component of the building (Slabs, Beams, footings) where the fortification is utilized. With a specific end goal to keep up the best possible plan of fortification and to give a covering to support. covering pieces are utilized.


Plinth Tie Beams & Plinth Filling


The plinth for the most part lays straightforwardly on the ground or stylobate. As indicated by Semper, the plinth exists to consult between a structure and the ground. Semper's hypothesis has been persuasive in the improvement of engineering.


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Thursday, 2 November 2017

Construction Materials.


The most imperative basic segments of a building development square measure the sections pillars items fabricated from cement and therefore the dividers that square measure fabricated from blocks and mortar. the basic fixings in solid, mortar and mortar square measure concrete, sand, stone chips, water, steel fortification then forth.


Cement:-

Cement is that the cowl that holds cement and mortars along and consequently it assumes the foremost basic half in giving quality and solidness to your home. it's utilised to create concrete for sections, institutions, pillars, segments, lintels, chhajja (sunshades), and mortar for masonry, putting, ground surface and different such work.



Sand:-


Alongside cement, sand is an essential fixing in mortars and cement. In this manner the best possible choice of sand is basic in the strength and execution of the solid/mortar blend. Stream sand is the best for development. However because of its shortage and over the top value, channel sand and produced sand are likewise utilized these days. The cost of sand incorporates three or four parts - base cost, transportation, dealing with and number of middle people. Accordingly securing sand in mass straightforwardly from the source will be less expensive than the area merchant, aside from when you require littler amounts.


Manufactured sand:-



Manufactured sand is also as called M-sand is being advanced by the legislature as a less expensive other option to normal sand in view of the shortage of good quality characteristic sand. Specialists vouch that manufactured sand isn't just a reasonable contrasting option to regular sand, yet prevalent from various perspectives. Mortars and solid utilizing M-sand as fine total are better when looked at than those utilizing regular sand. The prepared blend solid makers are as of now utilizing manufactured sand.

AGGREGATES (STONE CHIPS):-


In fact, known as coarse totals, stone chips are a noteworthy element of solid, giving it quality and robustness. The nature of cement depends particularly on the attributes of totals utilized.  Aggregates should be well-graded and should contain sizes from 5mm to 20mm  in proper proportion, so that voids are minimal. This will make a strong and durable concrete. At the same time, this will save on cement. So, always insist on graded aggregates and not 'pure' aggregates which result in larger voids within the concrete and more cement consumption.


Reinforcing steel:-


Reinforcing steel adds to the elasticity of cement. Concrete has low elastic, however high compressive quality. The elastic lack is repaid by reinforcing the solid mass through inclusion of plain or turned mellow steel bars. There are branded  and unbranded bars are also accessible. It is shrewd to purchase great brands like SAIL. Amid development, guarantee that size and the kind of steel fortification utilized is precisely according to the building plan particulars.


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Saturday, 21 October 2017

Civil constructions


Civil Constructions falls in the classification of structural building which is tied in with planning, developing and keeping up the physical and normally constructed condition. Common development is the craft of building spans, dams, streets, air terminals, channels, and structures. 


Structural building is the most seasoned controls of designing. Since the absolute starting point of the human presence, it has been the part of life. One of the primary parts of common development is auxiliary designing. It helps in outlining the structure in a way that it can bolster itself effectively alongside opposing burdens. The strength of the plan will fill in as the establishment of common development.

In the present society, there are gigantic undertakings implied for common development and building. The framework utilized as a part of our day by day experience all has been made as a result of common development and designing. The streets, railroads, stadiums, harbors, schools and different structures developed all are a commitment of civil engineering.

Classifying giant comes into civil construction stages has perpetually been anticipated whether or not it's for freelance or conjunction construction. To intensify the progress of the civil construction, each stage of the method is taken as individual contracts. The entire contracts area unit continued in special patterns and schedules. To take care of the standard of labor within the construction method, the period of each stage ought to be analyzed and evaluated before the method starts. Each stage of construction ought to have its own fundamental measure of implementations.

Architecture:- 

Architecture is that the artistic method behind buildings, houses, and alternative structural development. This is often an elaborate term for design creation which will be trendy thoroughly or “green” when considering environmentally safe ideas. This is often a coming up with method that several individuals might not admit once they see a structure like a building. There are styles that facilitate highlight the past, present, and future engineering ideas that facilitate form the globe we tend to all sleep in. alternative components associated with architecture embrace construction, engineering, and landscaping. Ideas from transforming to historical styles and time periods play a task in how structures are designed and created.

Architecture is formed from completely different ideas that facilitate accomplished people build and create works of art appropriate for living and dealing in. an example includes understanding the importance of symmetry, design, and proportion. There’s tier of mathematical intuition one should be acquainted with once planning buildings and tall structures. Architecture has evolved over the years supported earlier creations that are seen as historical elements in today’s society. Now, folks will use basic components of design to form their dream home, travel, and even admire the works of extremely delicate architects from the past and gift.

Besides buildings, homes, and habitation, design includes making styles with a purpose. There are architects that style golf courses, garden and landscaping layouts, and approaches and theories on however such components are developed and dead. There are inexperienced styles that are standard for serving to folks and animals sleep in a safer atmosphere. These ideas have evolved in recent years and still play a major role in however folks invest in study ideas like star panels and eco-friendly building materials. Another necessary half design has contended includes memorials styles from tombstones to national monuments that bear in mind lives lost a part of a country’s historical significance.

Interior designing:-


Interior design is that the method of shaping the expertise of interior area, through the manipulation of special volume additionally as surface treatment. to not be confused with interior decoration, interior style attracts on aspects of environmental science, design, and products style additionally to ancient decoration.

An interior designer could be a person {who|one that|one who} is taken into account an expert within the field of interior design or one who designs interiors as a part of their job. Interior style could be a inventive practice that analyzes programmatic data, establishes a abstract direction, refines the design direction, and produces graphic communication and construction documents. In some jurisdictions, interior designers should be authorized to observe.


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Saturday, 15 April 2017

Civil Contractors in Bangalore Cement

CEMENT

Usage of Cement in Buildings :

 Cement is that the binder that holds concrete and mortars along and thence it plays the foremost important role in giving strength and sturdiness to your home. it's wont to build concrete for slabs, foundations, beams, columns, lintels, chhajja (sunshades), and mortar for masonry, plastering, flooring and different such work. 

Types of Cement utilized in house construction : 

 Cements used for domestic building like your home ar primarily of 3 types: 

Ordinary Portland cement (OPC): a mix of clinker and mineral.


 Portland scum Cement (PSC): a mix of excellent quality furnace scum (from the iron and steel industry) with clinker (which makes OPC) and mineral. 

Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC): a mix of fly-ash (from thermal power plants) with clinker and mineral. 

Ideal cement for house construction:

 The best cement for house construction is mixed cement like PSC and PPC. however please note that sensible quality integrated cements like PSC and PPC can take longer to line. but the ultimate strength once twenty eight days are far more. 


  •  Features of excellent quality cement:
  •  Reduced water demand.
  •  Improved workability .
  •  Less leaky to wet.
  •  Improved resistance to acids and chlorides.
  •  Reduced heat of association. 
  • Easier to end. 
  • Reduced shrinkage. 
  • Reduced natural action issues as a result of it's low on free lime.


 The colour of cement has no regard to the strength characteristics. there's a wrong impression that darker color cement offers higher strength. In fact, darker color cement causes the staff to feature a lot of sand than allowed in cement-sand mortar for daubing, which may then cause issues. 

Selecting the correct cement for your house :

 It is important that you just use solely a acknowledged whole of cement. sensible brands of cement might value two to five a lot of however supply quality, consistency and responsibility furthermore as ten to twenty larger strength characteristics. Cement accounts for a mere twelve to eighteen of the overall expenditure on your home. So, exploitation cheaper cement offers you very little overall savings however a larger risk to the strength of your building!

The right manner of exploitation cement in construction:


 Cement should be additional to the concrete and mortar in an exceedingly precise, consistent manner. deficient or an excessive amount of cement in concrete and improper water-cement ratios cause lower strengths, shorter style life and lower sturdiness. ne'er try and save on cement use by diluting the concrete combine. Remember, that by exploitation thirty to forty luggage less of cement, you'd save no over Rs 3000 to Rs 4000.

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Sunday, 9 April 2017

Civil Contractors in Bangalore Aggregate

Aggregate 

Aggregate is the component of a composite material that resists compressive stress and provides bulk to the composite material. For efficient filling, aggregate should be much smaller than the finished item, but have a wide variety of sizes. For example, the particles of stone used to make concrete typically include both sand and gravel. 

Comparison to fiber composites 

Aggregate composites tend to be much easier to fabricate, and much more predictable in their finished properties, than fiber composites. Fiber orientation and continuity can have an overwhelming effect, but can be difficult to control and assess. Fabrication aside, aggregate materials themselves also tend to be less expensive; the most common aggregates mentioned above are found in nature and can often be used with only minimal processing. 

 Not all composite materials include aggregate. Aggregate particles tend to have about the same dimensions in every direction (that is, an aspect ratio of about one), so that aggregate composites do not display the level of synergy that fiber composites often do. A strong aggregate held together by a weak matrix will be weak in tension, whereas fibers can be less sensitive to matrix properties, especially if they are properly oriented and run the entire length of the part (i.e., a continuous filament). 

 Most composites are filled with particles whose aspect ratio lies somewhere between oriented filaments and spherical aggregates. A good compromise is chopped fiber, where the performance of filament or cloth is traded off in favor of more aggregate-like processing techniques. Ellipsoid and plate-shaped aggregates are also used.

 Aggregate properties 

In most cases, the ideal finished piece would be 100% aggregate. A given application's most desirable quality (be it high strength, low cost, high dielectric constant, or low density) is usually most prominent in the aggregate itself; all the aggregate lacks is the ability to flow on a small scale, and form attachments between particles. The matrix is specifically chosen to serve this role, but its abilities should not be abused.

 Aggregate size

 Experiments and mathematical models show that more of a given volume can be filled with hard spheres if it is first filled with large spheres, then the spaces between (interstices) are filled with smaller spheres, and the new interstices filled with still smaller spheres as many times as possible. For this reason, control of particle size distribution can be quite important in the choice of aggregate; appropriate simulations or experiments are necessary to determine the optimal proportions of different-sized particles. 

The upper limit to particle size depends on the amount of flow required before the composite sets (the gravel in paving concrete can be fairly coarse, but fine sand must be used for tile mortar), whereas the lower limit is due to the thickness of matrix material at which its properties change (clay is not included in concrete because it would "absorb" the matrix, preventing a strong bond to other aggregate particles). Particle size distribution is also the subject of much study in the fields of ceramics and powder metallurgy. 

 Some exceptions to this rule include: 

Toughened composites 

Toughness is a compromise between the (often contradictory) requirements of strength and plasticity. In many cases, the aggregate will have one of these properties, and will benefit if the matrix can add what it lacks. Perhaps the most accessible examples of this are composites with an organic matrix and ceramic aggregate, such as asphalt concrete ("tarmac") and filled plastic (i.e., Nylon mixed with powdered glass), although most metal matrix composites also benefit from this effect. In this case, the correct balance of hard and soft components is necessary or the material will become either too weak or too brittle. 

Nanocomposites

Many materials properties change radically at small length scales (see nanotechnology). In the case where this change is desirable, a certain range of aggregate size is necessary to ensure good performance. This naturally sets a lower limit to the amount of matrix material used. 

 Unless some practical method is implemented to orient the particles in micro- or nano-composites, their small size and (usually) high strength relative to the particle-matrix bond allows any macroscopic object made from them to be treated as an aggregate composite in many respects. 

 While bulk synthesis of such nanoparticles as carbon nanotubes is currently too expensive for widespread use, some less extreme nanostructured materials can be synthesized by traditional methods, including electrospinning and spray pyrolysis. One important aggregate made by spray pyrolysis is glass microspheres. Often called microballoons, they consist of a hollow shell several tens of nanometers thick and approximately one micrometer in diameter. Casting them in a polymer matrix yields syntactic foam, with extremely high compressive strength for its low density.

 Many traditional nanocomposites escape the problem of aggregate synthesis in one of two ways:

 Natural aggregates: By far the most widely used aggregates for nano-composites are naturally occurring. Usually these are ceramic materials whose crystalline structure is extremely directional, allowing it to be easily separated into flakes or fibers. The nanotechnology touted by General Motors for automotive use is in the former category: a fine-grained clay with a laminar structure suspended in a thermoplastic olefin (a class which includes many common plastics like polyethylene and polypropylene). The latter category includes fibrous asbestos composites (popular in the mid-20th century), often with matrix materials such as linoleum and Portland cement.

 In-situ aggregate formation: Many micro-composites form their aggregate particles by a process of self-assembly. For example, in high impact polystyrene, two immiscible phases of polymer (including brittle polystyrene and rubbery polybutadiene) are mixed together. Special molecules (graft copolymers) include separate portions which are soluble in each phase, and so are only stable at the interface between them, in the manner of a detergent. Since the number of this type of molecule determines the interfacial area, and since spheres naturally form to minimize surface tension, synthetic chemists can control the size of polybutadiene droplets in the molten mix, which harden to form rubbery aggregates in a hard matrix. Dispersion strengthening is a similar example from the field of metallurgy. In glass-ceramics, the aggregate is often chosen to have a negative coefficient of thermal expansion, and the proportion of aggregate to matrix adjusted so that the overall expansion is very near zero. Aggregate size can be reduced so that the material is transparent to infrared light.

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Monday, 3 April 2017

Civil Contractors in Bangalore Glassbrick

Glassbrick 


Glass brick, also known as glass block, is an architectural element made from glass. Glass bricks provide visual obscuration while admitting light. The glass block was originally developed in the early 1900s to provide natural light in manufacturing plants. 


Glass bricks are produced for both wall and floor applications. Glass blocks for use in floors are normally manufactured as a single solid piece, or as a hollow glass block with thicker side walls than the standard wall blocks. These blocks are normally cast into a reinforced concrete gridwork or set into a metal frame, allowing multiple units to be combined to span over openings in basements and roofs. Glass wall blocks should not be used in flooring applications. Hollow glass wall blocks are manufactured as two separate halves and, whilst the glass is still molten, the two pieces are pressed together and annealed. The resulting glass blocks will have a partial vacuum at the hollow centre. 

Standards and grading :

Glass blocks in Europe are manufactured in accordance with the European Standard EN1052-2. The International Standard is ISO TC 160/SG1. The Standards allow for variation in sizes and production irregularity. Blocks fall within three classifications; Class1, Class 2 and Class 3 with Class 1 being the highest and best rating with a maximum permissible deviation from designed size and rectangularity of 1 mm. 

Construction methods :

Glass wall blocks are fixed together to form complete walls by several methods – the most common method of construction is to bed the blocks together in a Portland cement-based mortar with reinforcing rods of steel placed within the mortar as recommended by the project architect or block manufacturer. Other methods of construction include several proprietary systems whereby the mortar is replaced by timber or PVC extrusions. 



R Value :

Glass brick has an r value between 1.75 and 1.96, close to that of thermopane windows.There are newer Glass Blocks injected with Argon gas and having a layer of low-emissivity glass between the halves, which increases the insulative (U) value to 1.5 W/m²•K, which is between triple glazed windows(1.8 W/m²•K) and specialty double glazed windows with advanced frame and coatings(1.2 W/m²•K). 

Specialty types :

Specialist glass blocks are produced for various applications including: 

Bullet and vandal resistance:

Bullet and vandal resistant blocks are generally solid glass or have very thick side walls similar to pavement blocks. 

Fire resistance:


Fire resistance of varying degrees can be achieved by several methods. Standard production hollow wall block will offer little fire resistance; however, resistance is improved by utilising specially produced hollow blocks with thicker sidewalls, or the inclusion of a special layer of fire resisting material between the two halves of the block during manufacture. Some manufacturers of glass blocks have developed a method of bonding two glass blocks together with adhesive, producing blocks of up to 160 mm (6½") thick with enhanced fire resistance. It is important that the block manufacturer's recommendations are followed with regards to the installation of fire resisting glass block walls, as without special construction techniques, the wall will not achieve the desired fire resistance. 

Gas insulated :


A recent innovation in the manufacture of glass blocks is the inclusion of argon gas within the hollow centre of glass wall blocks. This advancement in production technique has resulted in a glass block which is able to offer significantly improved thermal insulation properties.

 Colored :

Some hollow glass wall blocks are available in coloured variants. These coloured variants fall into two categories; those that are manufactured with coloured glass which are UV stable and can be used in the same locations as standard clear glass blocks. The other method by which coloured glass blocks are achieved is to inject a coloured material, dye or transparent paint into the hollow centre of the blocks to form a permanent coating. This method of producing coloured blocks enables vibrant colours to be achieved which are not possible with coloured glass. The downside of this production method is that the coloured coating may not be UV stable and can fade in bright sunshine over time and may therefore, not be suitable for all locations.

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