Saturday, 15 April 2017

Civil Contractors in Bangalore Cement


Usage of Cement in Buildings :

 Cement is that the binder that holds concrete and mortars along and thence it plays the foremost important role in giving strength and sturdiness to your home. it's wont to build concrete for slabs, foundations, beams, columns, lintels, chhajja (sunshades), and mortar for masonry, plastering, flooring and different such work. 

Types of Cement utilized in house construction : 

 Cements used for domestic building like your home ar primarily of 3 types: 

Ordinary Portland cement (OPC): a mix of clinker and mineral.

 Portland scum Cement (PSC): a mix of excellent quality furnace scum (from the iron and steel industry) with clinker (which makes OPC) and mineral. 

Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC): a mix of fly-ash (from thermal power plants) with clinker and mineral. 

Ideal cement for house construction:

 The best cement for house construction is mixed cement like PSC and PPC. however please note that sensible quality integrated cements like PSC and PPC can take longer to line. but the ultimate strength once twenty eight days are far more. 

  •  Features of excellent quality cement:
  •  Reduced water demand.
  •  Improved workability .
  •  Less leaky to wet.
  •  Improved resistance to acids and chlorides.
  •  Reduced heat of association. 
  • Easier to end. 
  • Reduced shrinkage. 
  • Reduced natural action issues as a result of it's low on free lime.

 The colour of cement has no regard to the strength characteristics. there's a wrong impression that darker color cement offers higher strength. In fact, darker color cement causes the staff to feature a lot of sand than allowed in cement-sand mortar for daubing, which may then cause issues. 

Selecting the correct cement for your house :

 It is important that you just use solely a acknowledged whole of cement. sensible brands of cement might value two to five a lot of however supply quality, consistency and responsibility furthermore as ten to twenty larger strength characteristics. Cement accounts for a mere twelve to eighteen of the overall expenditure on your home. So, exploitation cheaper cement offers you very little overall savings however a larger risk to the strength of your building!

The right manner of exploitation cement in construction:

 Cement should be additional to the concrete and mortar in an exceedingly precise, consistent manner. deficient or an excessive amount of cement in concrete and improper water-cement ratios cause lower strengths, shorter style life and lower sturdiness. ne'er try and save on cement use by diluting the concrete combine. Remember, that by exploitation thirty to forty luggage less of cement, you'd save no over Rs 3000 to Rs 4000.


Sunday, 9 April 2017

Civil Contractors in Bangalore Aggregate


Aggregate is the component of a composite material that resists compressive stress and provides bulk to the composite material. For efficient filling, aggregate should be much smaller than the finished item, but have a wide variety of sizes. For example, the particles of stone used to make concrete typically include both sand and gravel. 

Comparison to fiber composites 

Aggregate composites tend to be much easier to fabricate, and much more predictable in their finished properties, than fiber composites. Fiber orientation and continuity can have an overwhelming effect, but can be difficult to control and assess. Fabrication aside, aggregate materials themselves also tend to be less expensive; the most common aggregates mentioned above are found in nature and can often be used with only minimal processing. 

 Not all composite materials include aggregate. Aggregate particles tend to have about the same dimensions in every direction (that is, an aspect ratio of about one), so that aggregate composites do not display the level of synergy that fiber composites often do. A strong aggregate held together by a weak matrix will be weak in tension, whereas fibers can be less sensitive to matrix properties, especially if they are properly oriented and run the entire length of the part (i.e., a continuous filament). 

 Most composites are filled with particles whose aspect ratio lies somewhere between oriented filaments and spherical aggregates. A good compromise is chopped fiber, where the performance of filament or cloth is traded off in favor of more aggregate-like processing techniques. Ellipsoid and plate-shaped aggregates are also used.

 Aggregate properties 

In most cases, the ideal finished piece would be 100% aggregate. A given application's most desirable quality (be it high strength, low cost, high dielectric constant, or low density) is usually most prominent in the aggregate itself; all the aggregate lacks is the ability to flow on a small scale, and form attachments between particles. The matrix is specifically chosen to serve this role, but its abilities should not be abused.

 Aggregate size

 Experiments and mathematical models show that more of a given volume can be filled with hard spheres if it is first filled with large spheres, then the spaces between (interstices) are filled with smaller spheres, and the new interstices filled with still smaller spheres as many times as possible. For this reason, control of particle size distribution can be quite important in the choice of aggregate; appropriate simulations or experiments are necessary to determine the optimal proportions of different-sized particles. 

The upper limit to particle size depends on the amount of flow required before the composite sets (the gravel in paving concrete can be fairly coarse, but fine sand must be used for tile mortar), whereas the lower limit is due to the thickness of matrix material at which its properties change (clay is not included in concrete because it would "absorb" the matrix, preventing a strong bond to other aggregate particles). Particle size distribution is also the subject of much study in the fields of ceramics and powder metallurgy. 

 Some exceptions to this rule include: 

Toughened composites 

Toughness is a compromise between the (often contradictory) requirements of strength and plasticity. In many cases, the aggregate will have one of these properties, and will benefit if the matrix can add what it lacks. Perhaps the most accessible examples of this are composites with an organic matrix and ceramic aggregate, such as asphalt concrete ("tarmac") and filled plastic (i.e., Nylon mixed with powdered glass), although most metal matrix composites also benefit from this effect. In this case, the correct balance of hard and soft components is necessary or the material will become either too weak or too brittle. 


Many materials properties change radically at small length scales (see nanotechnology). In the case where this change is desirable, a certain range of aggregate size is necessary to ensure good performance. This naturally sets a lower limit to the amount of matrix material used. 

 Unless some practical method is implemented to orient the particles in micro- or nano-composites, their small size and (usually) high strength relative to the particle-matrix bond allows any macroscopic object made from them to be treated as an aggregate composite in many respects. 

 While bulk synthesis of such nanoparticles as carbon nanotubes is currently too expensive for widespread use, some less extreme nanostructured materials can be synthesized by traditional methods, including electrospinning and spray pyrolysis. One important aggregate made by spray pyrolysis is glass microspheres. Often called microballoons, they consist of a hollow shell several tens of nanometers thick and approximately one micrometer in diameter. Casting them in a polymer matrix yields syntactic foam, with extremely high compressive strength for its low density.

 Many traditional nanocomposites escape the problem of aggregate synthesis in one of two ways:

 Natural aggregates: By far the most widely used aggregates for nano-composites are naturally occurring. Usually these are ceramic materials whose crystalline structure is extremely directional, allowing it to be easily separated into flakes or fibers. The nanotechnology touted by General Motors for automotive use is in the former category: a fine-grained clay with a laminar structure suspended in a thermoplastic olefin (a class which includes many common plastics like polyethylene and polypropylene). The latter category includes fibrous asbestos composites (popular in the mid-20th century), often with matrix materials such as linoleum and Portland cement.

 In-situ aggregate formation: Many micro-composites form their aggregate particles by a process of self-assembly. For example, in high impact polystyrene, two immiscible phases of polymer (including brittle polystyrene and rubbery polybutadiene) are mixed together. Special molecules (graft copolymers) include separate portions which are soluble in each phase, and so are only stable at the interface between them, in the manner of a detergent. Since the number of this type of molecule determines the interfacial area, and since spheres naturally form to minimize surface tension, synthetic chemists can control the size of polybutadiene droplets in the molten mix, which harden to form rubbery aggregates in a hard matrix. Dispersion strengthening is a similar example from the field of metallurgy. In glass-ceramics, the aggregate is often chosen to have a negative coefficient of thermal expansion, and the proportion of aggregate to matrix adjusted so that the overall expansion is very near zero. Aggregate size can be reduced so that the material is transparent to infrared light.



Monday, 3 April 2017

Civil Contractors in Bangalore Glassbrick


Glass brick, also known as glass block, is an architectural element made from glass. Glass bricks provide visual obscuration while admitting light. The glass block was originally developed in the early 1900s to provide natural light in manufacturing plants. 

Glass bricks are produced for both wall and floor applications. Glass blocks for use in floors are normally manufactured as a single solid piece, or as a hollow glass block with thicker side walls than the standard wall blocks. These blocks are normally cast into a reinforced concrete gridwork or set into a metal frame, allowing multiple units to be combined to span over openings in basements and roofs. Glass wall blocks should not be used in flooring applications. Hollow glass wall blocks are manufactured as two separate halves and, whilst the glass is still molten, the two pieces are pressed together and annealed. The resulting glass blocks will have a partial vacuum at the hollow centre. 

Standards and grading :

Glass blocks in Europe are manufactured in accordance with the European Standard EN1052-2. The International Standard is ISO TC 160/SG1. The Standards allow for variation in sizes and production irregularity. Blocks fall within three classifications; Class1, Class 2 and Class 3 with Class 1 being the highest and best rating with a maximum permissible deviation from designed size and rectangularity of 1 mm. 

Construction methods :

Glass wall blocks are fixed together to form complete walls by several methods – the most common method of construction is to bed the blocks together in a Portland cement-based mortar with reinforcing rods of steel placed within the mortar as recommended by the project architect or block manufacturer. Other methods of construction include several proprietary systems whereby the mortar is replaced by timber or PVC extrusions. 

R Value :

Glass brick has an r value between 1.75 and 1.96, close to that of thermopane windows.There are newer Glass Blocks injected with Argon gas and having a layer of low-emissivity glass between the halves, which increases the insulative (U) value to 1.5 W/m²•K, which is between triple glazed windows(1.8 W/m²•K) and specialty double glazed windows with advanced frame and coatings(1.2 W/m²•K). 

Specialty types :

Specialist glass blocks are produced for various applications including: 

Bullet and vandal resistance:

Bullet and vandal resistant blocks are generally solid glass or have very thick side walls similar to pavement blocks. 

Fire resistance:

Fire resistance of varying degrees can be achieved by several methods. Standard production hollow wall block will offer little fire resistance; however, resistance is improved by utilising specially produced hollow blocks with thicker sidewalls, or the inclusion of a special layer of fire resisting material between the two halves of the block during manufacture. Some manufacturers of glass blocks have developed a method of bonding two glass blocks together with adhesive, producing blocks of up to 160 mm (6½") thick with enhanced fire resistance. It is important that the block manufacturer's recommendations are followed with regards to the installation of fire resisting glass block walls, as without special construction techniques, the wall will not achieve the desired fire resistance. 

Gas insulated :

A recent innovation in the manufacture of glass blocks is the inclusion of argon gas within the hollow centre of glass wall blocks. This advancement in production technique has resulted in a glass block which is able to offer significantly improved thermal insulation properties.

 Colored :

Some hollow glass wall blocks are available in coloured variants. These coloured variants fall into two categories; those that are manufactured with coloured glass which are UV stable and can be used in the same locations as standard clear glass blocks. The other method by which coloured glass blocks are achieved is to inject a coloured material, dye or transparent paint into the hollow centre of the blocks to form a permanent coating. This method of producing coloured blocks enables vibrant colours to be achieved which are not possible with coloured glass. The downside of this production method is that the coloured coating may not be UV stable and can fade in bright sunshine over time and may therefore, not be suitable for all locations.

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Civil Contractors in Bangalore Flooring

Civil Contractors in Bangalore Flooring

Flooring : is that the general term for a permanent covering of a floor, or for the work of putting in such a floor cover. floor cover may be a term to generically describe any end material applied over a floor structure to produce a walking surface. each terms area unit used interchangeably however floor cover refers additional to loose-laid materials.

 Materials nearly always classified as flooring embody carpet, laminate, tile and vinyl.


 Subfloor : The floor below the flooring is termed the subfloor, that provides the support for the flooring. Special purpose subfloors like floating floors, raised floors or sprung floors could also be arranged upon another underlying subfloor that provides the structural strength. Subfloors that area unit below grade (underground) or ground level floors in buildings while not basements usually have a cement subfloor. Subfloors higher than grade (above ground) usually have a laminate subfloor.

 Flooring materials : The choice of fabric for floor cover is plagued by factors like value, endurance, noise insulation, comfort and improvement effort. Some sorts of flooring should not be put in below grade, as well as laminate and hardwood because of potential injury from wet. The sub-floor could also be finished in an exceedingly approach that creates it usable with none further work, see:

 Earthen floor adobe or clay floors
 Solid ground floor, building material levelling/wearing/granolithic screeds,polymer-modified concretes and levelling/wearing screeds.

 Carpeting :

 Carpet may be a soft floor cover made from sure carpet fibers or fastened fibers. floor cover refers to wall-to-wall coverage, whereas a cowl|floor covering furnishings is just accustomed cover an area. this sort of flooring is usually employed indoors and may be used in each high and low traffic areas. It usually lasts for 15-18 years before it must get replaced. the standard of a carpet is typically measured in face weight, or what number fibers there area unit per square measure. the upper the face weight the additional plush a carpet can feel. Carpets are available in a range of materials as well as wool, nylon, alkene and polyester. There area unit differing kinds of carpet like twists, that is often brought up as a berber. Twist floor coverconsists of multiple twisted fibers set into the carpet backing. it's usually employed in low traffic areas. Another variety of floor cover is whorled carpets, that area unit composed of whorled fibers set into the carpet backing. this sort of floor cover is usually employed in high traffic areas because it is simple to wash.

 Carpet cushioning : Padding may be placed underneath the carpet to feature comfort and supply some noise insulation. The level of comfort is determined by the type of material used, which can include memory foam and rubber regrind.

Wood flooring : Many different species of wood are fabricated into wood flooring in two primary forms: plank and parquet. Hardwoods are typically much more durable than softwoods. Reclaimed lumber has a unique appearance and is used in green (environmentally responsible) building. Engineered hardwood has a thin solid wood layer on top with a composite core. It can be a less expensive option than buying hardwood, but it cannot be sanded and refinished. This flooring typically is installed with a click-lock method. Bamboo flooring is a floor manufactured from the bamboo plant and is a type of hardwood flooring, though technically not a wood. Bamboo is known to be durable and environmentally friendly. It is available in many different patterns, colors, and textures. Cork flooring is a flooring material manufactured from the by-product of the cork oak tree. Cork floors are considered to be eco-friendly since the cork oak tree bark is stripped every nine to ten years and doesn't damage the tree. Cork flooring comes in both tiles and planks, and can have glue or glues-less installation.

 Laminate : Laminate is a floor covering that appears similar to hardwood but is made with a plywood or medium density fiberboard ("MDF") core with a plastic laminate top layer. HDF laminate consists of high density fiberboard topped by one or more layers of decorative paper and a transparent protective layer. Laminate could also be additionalsturdy than hardwood, however can't be refinished like hardwood. Laminate flooring is offered in totally different|many various many alternative patterns which might gibe different woods or perhaps ceramic tile. it always locks or faucets along. rug pad is needed for laminate flooring to produce wet and noise management.

 Hard flooring : Hard flooring (not to be confused with "hardwood") may be a family of flooring materials that has concrete or cement, ceramic tile, glass tiles, and natural stone product. Ceramic tile area unit clay product that area unit shaped into skinny tiles and discharged. Ceramic tiles area unit set in beds of mortar or mastic with the joints between tiles grouted. styles of ceramic tiles embody quarry tile, porcelain, terracotta. Many different natural stones area unit take away a range of sizes, shapes, and thicknesses to be used as flooring. Stone flooring uses an analogous installation technique to ceramic tile. Slate and marble area unit fashionable sorts of stone flooring that needs sharpening and protection. Stone aggregates, like Terrazzo, may also be used rather than raw cut stone and area unit out there as either preformed tiles or to be made in-place employing a cement binder. Porcelain ceramic ware may be used rather than natural stone. it's a ceramic material sort of a tile; but, it'susually twenty metric linear unit (0.79 in) thick and sometimes comes in squares of sixty cm (24 in). Concrete or cement finished floor is additionally used for its ability to be treated for various feel and its sturdiness, like polished concrete. Epoxy resurfacing of concrete flooring is employed to update or upgrade concrete floor surfaces in business and residential applications – see seamless chemical compound flooring section below.

 Resilient flooring : Unlike tiles that area unit made from minerals, resilient flooring is formed of materials that have some physical property, giving the flooring a degree of flexibility known as resilience. The flooring is offered in giant sheets or pre-cut tiles, and either comes with pre-applied adhesive for peel-and-stick installation or needs adhesive to be troweled on to the substrate. Resilient flooring includes many alternative factory-made product as well as lino, sheet vinyl, vinyl composition tile (VCT), cork (sheet or tile), and rubber. Performance surfaces used for dance or athletics area unit sometimes made from wood or resilient flooring. the 2 basic classes of vinyl floor tiles area unit solid vinyl and vinyl composition, and also the 3 basic classes of vinyl sheet flooring area unit unvaried, inlaid, and bedded composite. These types of vinyl flooring differ in manufacturing process and content, ranging in vinyl (polyvinyl chloride) content from 11% to 55%. Resilient flooring products, such as PVC and polypropylene are becoming more popular in specialty applications such as trailer flooring and garage flooring. New applications have also emerged for marine flooring. There are important factors to consider in specialty applications, that may not be present in a typical application. For example, certain tires will leave marks on PVC flooring but those marks will be less prevalent on polypropylene products. Adhesives also change based on application.

 Seamless polymer flooring : Many different seamless flooring materials are available that vary from air drying latex emulsion polymers to reactive thermoset resins such as waterborne, solvented or solvent-free urethanes, polyaspartics and epoxies.Applied in liquid form, all dry and/or cure to provide a completely seamless floor covering. They find use in situations ranging from the simple protection of domestic garage floors, to the restoration and protection of commercial and industrial flooring. They are also used to solve a vast array of problems in industry such as wet areas in laboratories or food processing plants where spillages of oils and fats are easily absorbed and difficult to clean. Other reasons for covering concrete with a synthetic resin flooring are for improving resistance to chemicals, enhancing resistance to impact and wear, and for aesthetic look functions.

 Seamless chemical compound flooring will take several forms:

  •  Floor seals applied at but vi mil (0.15 mm)
  •  Floor coatings applied at vi - twelve mil (0.15 – 0.3 mm)
  •  High-build floor coatings applied at vi - forty mil (0.15 – 1 mm) 
  •  Broadcast flooring with embedded mixture applied in far more than eighty mil (2 mm)
  •  Flow applied (self-smoothing/self-levelling flooring) applied at eighty – one hundred twenty  mil (2 – three mm) 
  • Trowel finished sure organic compound screed flooring applied in far more than one hundred  sixty mil (4 mm)
  •  Heavy duty flow applied flooring applied at one hundred sixty – 240 mil (4 – vi mm)
  •  Heavy duty trowel finished organic compound screed flooring applied in far more than 240mil  (6 mm) 
  • They usually have granular or rubberized particles supplemental to provide higher traction/slip  resistance on walkways and steps particularly in areas subject to frequent laundry, and for  higher traction/skid resistance in traffic aisles.